Conflict also disrupts growth. Although many conflic

icts appear to have a religious or ethnic basis, some scholars believe their root cause may be economic, with ethnic divisio

s serving as a way to exclude other groups from access to scarce resources and opportunities. Whatever its so

urce, inequality of opportunity has a highly disruptive effect on governance and hence growth.

But these obstacles are not insurmountable. For one th

ing, developing countries now have huge potential export markets in middle-inc

ome countries, and no longer depend entirely on advanced economies for access to global markets.

Belt and Road can play vital development role

There is also a renewed awareness of the importance of infrastructure in e

nabling growth. In addition to roads, railways and ports, electricity and digital conn

ectivity are crucial. In this regard, the rapid expansion of cellular wireless technology, combined with the install

ation of high-capacity undersea broadband pipes around Africa, represents major prog

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Hospital head removed after 5 infants dieuthern Medical Uni

Liu Ruilin, Party secretary and president of Shunde Hospital of Southern Medical University, has been re

moved from his positions after five babies died and 14 fell ill during an enterovirus outbreak at the hospital.

The five newborns who died had other underlying diseases, such as pneumonia, before contracti

ng the virus, according to a statement from the Guangdong Health Commission on Saturday.

Thirteen of the sick babies have been discharged from the hospital, wh

ile the other one continues to be treated and is in a stable condition, the commission said.

An investigation determined that the case became serious becaus

e of the combination of the intestinal virus with lax hospital management.

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Most Chinese State-owned enterprises are not relevant to tra

ade negotiations. Many are in non-tradable sectors such as property develop

ment, infrastructure, or concrete. Others are basically public utilities in telecoms or power.

Some Chinese car companies are State-owned, usually by provincial govern

ments, but the car business in China is very highly competitive and foreign brands are very successful.

In any case, the continuing growth of an already large private sector should alleviate foreign concerns

about competing with State-owned companies.

During the George W. Bush administration, the US imposed tarif

fs on Chinese steel, arguing that State-owned companies had an unfair advantage. But, US ste

el companies also face higher costs because of increased environmental protection. China’s current emphasis on bu

ilding an “ecological civilization” means that that kind of polluting heavy industry will be less viable.

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China’s tech heavyweights said the digital economy ha

s become a driving force behind economic growth, and interne

t companies should concentrate on making breakthroughs in core technologies.

“The country is narrowing the gap with developed countries, especially in autonomo

us driving, cooperative vehicle-infrastructure systems and intelligent transportation. We started a little late, but o

ur pace is faster and our potential is bigger,” said Robin Li, chairman and CEO of leading Chinese search engine Baidu Inc.

He noted that AI will have an impact on the internet and China should firmly grasp the historic opportuni

ties of AI, and the country’s efforts in technological innovations will begin gradually changing the world.

Pony Ma, chairman and CEO of Tencent Holdings Ltd, said the e-government is becoming the driving force for cons

truction of a digital China and high-quality social and economic development, and internet firms should co

nsolidate basic research and focus on making breakthroughs in core technologies.

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the World Trade Organization in 2001. That paved the

way to more than a decade of export-led double-digit economic grow

th, and the ongoing shift from export-led quantitative economic growth to inno

vation-led qualitative development, which has accelerated under President Xi Jinping’s leadership.

China’s industrialization peaked between the late 1990s and 2008, when the

global financial crisis broke out. Now China’s rate of growth is decelerating, which has been

the norm for all industrialized countries from Great Britain in the 19th century to the US in the 20th century.

In China, deceleration is a sign that rebalancing toward consumption and innovation by 2030 is on track.

Nevertheless, the living standard in China continues to improve st

eadily. Today, it is about a third relative to the US. In other words, it has multiplied six tim

es relative to US living standard, thus supporting the rise of the world’s largest emerging middle-income group.

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The kind of view that he expressed is certainly in th

 right direction, and I’m encouraged by all of that,” said Jack Perkowski, a Wall S

treet veteran and founder and managing partner of JFP Holdings in New York.

Perkowski said that when combined with a perceived lack of legal enforc

ement, the issue of protecting IPR has always been the single biggest hurdle for most

companies from the United States when thinking about entering the China market.

He said every aspect of doing business in China has gotten better in the past two decades in the view of international investors.

Perkowski said IPR protection has emerged as a key issue. “China is deve

loping economically and technologically, so the bar is getting higher,” he said.

Savio Chan, CEO of US China Partners Inc, a business development f

irm, said the government’s crackdown on “squatting”-registering a large number of tradem

arks in order to unfairly profit-will improve the environment and help enterprises build brands with real value.

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said that “all military units deployed in the eigh

The People’s Bank of China (PBOC), the central bank, has upgra

ded the fifth edition of the renminbi (RMB), the Chin

ese currency, and on Monday announced the issuing of the new batch from Aug 30.

The new issuance will include notes with a face value of 50 y

uan ($7), 20 yuan, 10 yuan and one yuan, and coins valued one yuan, 50 fen and 10 fen.

Compared with the current series in circulation, the new batch will see brighte

r colors and adjusted patterns with enhanced anti-conterfeiting feature, a PBOC official said.

The five-yuan note will not be in the upcoming issuance as new technologies on the note are still under testing. The 100-y

uan note was issued in November 2015, which has shown improved anti-conterfeiting capability, said the PBOC source.

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Xi stressed the importance of fulfilling bilateral and

 multilateral trade agreements, saying that Chinese people value a promise as much as tons of gold.

China pays close attention to building a law-based government, abolishing improper r

ules, subsidies and activities that undermine fair competition and treating all enterprises equally, Xi said.

The president highlighted building infrastructure of high quality, sustain

ability, risk resilience, reasonable pricing, inclusiveness and accessibility under the Belt and Road Initiative.

Infrastructure is a bottleneck in the development of many nations

, Xi said, and building infrastructure can help countries give full play to their ad

vantages in resources and better integrate into the global supply, industry and value chains.

Xi called on countries to uphold multilateralism, promote green devel

opment and fight corruption with zero tolerance in the process of building the Belt and Road.

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Leveraging private funds prioritized in BRI projects

China’s financial minister and central bank governor vowed to strengthe

n debt management and leverage more private funds for infrastructure construction un

der the Belt and Road Initiative, suggesting a new framework to assess debt risks for partner countries on Thursday.

The Ministry of Finance published a debt-sustainability analysis framework for the BRI’s participating economies at the start of t

he Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, a three-day event in Beijing.

Financial institutions of China and other BRI economies are encouraged to use the “nonmandatory” policy t

ool for rating debt risk before making lending decisions. The analysis method is based on in

ternational standards provided by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, according to the ministry.

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The Belt and Road Initiative, which originated in C

 China but belongs to the world, has become an open and inclusive platform for international cooperation and a well-recog

nized global public good thanks to the concerted efforts of the parties involved, Xi said.

Calling think tanks significant forces for Belt and Road constructi

on, the president said developing think tank exchanges and cooperation helps deepen mu

tual trust, unite consensus and promote the BRI to achieve high-level development.

He expressed the hope that the think tank network would develop in-depth academic exchanges to promote solid coope

ration under the BRI and contribute to the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

Also on Wednesday, a ceremony to mark the release of the English and French editions

of a compilation of remarks by Xi on the Belt and Road was held in Beijing by the State Council Information Office.

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